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Three new books trace a century of antiwar activists’ visions for a more equal, peaceful world.

At the turn of the twentieth century, leading figures in the Progressive movement nurtured an idealistic dream. With the right kind of social reform, they believed, humanity could end all war. The philosopher William James called for a “moral equivalent of war.” The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace funded legal efforts to abolish war. And in her 1907 book Newer Ideals of Peace, Jane Addams predicted that more rights for workers, women, and immigrants would soon create so much global cooperation that no one would fight again.

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